YouTuber GadgetsBoy discovered the problem while trying to see how long the new camera could record on its highest settings. Turns out that’s about 20 minutes, though that might also be circumstantial. According to a statement from GoPro given to Digital Camera World, airflow could be a big factor in preventing or delaying a shutdown.
GoPro has stated that, yes, the Hero10 Black can overheat, but being outdoors and moving should help. It goes on to explain that most GoPro videos (about 75%, it says) are shorter than 1:10, and often filmed outside where there's a breeze. It stands to reason that being pushed far beyond its typical performance parameters might lead to overheating, though these limitations aren't immediately apparent.